The Academic Papers

Nargile  yıllar önce tömbeki adı verilen bir tütün cinsini içmeye yarayan alete verilen isimdi. Nargile 13-14. Yüzyıllarda Hintlilerin  narcil  denilen kabuklarından yapılarak içilmeye başlandı. Mısır'lı insanlar bu alete çok ilgi gösterdiler ve isminede “nargil” dediler. İşte  nargile isminin kökeni buradan gelmektedir. Tam bir keyifçi olarak bilinen Pers'ler narçil yerine mermerden nargile şişesi, altından başlık ve nargile hortumunuda ilave ederek bugünkü nargile yaygınlaştırdılar. Arapların nargil, Perslerin kalyan, Avrupalıları nargile, Türklerin nargile adını verdikleri bu keyif aleti zamanla çok tutuldu ve kültür haline gelmeye başladı. Nargile aslen doğu ucunda bir ögesidir ancak zamanla yayılarak batıda da kimi pantolon kullanılmaya başlanmıştır.

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Mold clamp tools definition

What is mold clamp? The mold clamp (also called mould clamp) is a kind of auxiliary clamping unit often used in injection mold processing, its main function is to keep the machined parts not shaking not moving in the processing.

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6 Characteristics of 5G NR Technology

Today, we talk about the 5G NR technology and the 6 Characteristics of 5G NR Technology.

What is 5G NR technology?

The 5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems, 5th-Generation, referred to as 5G or 5G NR technology is the latest generation of cellular mobile communication technology, namely 4G (LTE-A, WiMax), 3G ( Extension after UMTS, LTE) and 2G (GSM) systems.

5G NR technology has set a new standard for wireless, opening up the spectrum above 6 GHz that has been previously unusable by cellular services.

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Today, we talk about the 5G NR technology and the 6 Characteristics of 5G NR Technology.

What is 5G NR technology?

The 5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems, 5th-Generation, referred to as 5G or 5G NR technology is the latest generation of cellular mobile communication technology, namely 4G (LTE-A, WiMax), 3G ( Extension after UMTS, LTE) and 2G (GSM) systems.

5G NR technology has set a new standard for wireless, opening up the spectrum above 6 GHz that has been previously unusable by cellular services.

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Despite the hype of 5G NR, Wi-Fi and 5GNR together play an important role in corporate use cases such as remote patient care and smart manufacturing. How 5G Enhances WiFi in the industries?

5G new radio is a very new technology. In addition to faster speeds, when 5G is actually implemented.

The dramatic claim that New 5G will replace WiFi is unfounded to New Radio 5G? It doesn't work today.

Few industries are as affected by 5G as manufacturing. In the manufacturing industry, the advent of cellular technology could stimulate the next industrial revolution.

Most factories continue to operate on Wi-Fi networks, but the wave of smart factories based on 5G technology is beginning to emerge. 

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The new 5G and massive MIMO are everywhere. What can the 5G massive MIMO bring to our life?

With the continuous progress of information technology, digitalization, and big data, the development of antenna technology also has higher requirements, and the communication system keeps developing to the higher frequency band and larger bandwidth.

Looking back to the radio communication technology, from the 1895 Italian scientist Marconi, the first wireless telegram is filled with the other side of the ocean. It has already passed more than 120 years in social life, aerospace, military, etc. Radio communications technology has played an irreplaceable role.

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13 Common IoT Communication Technologies

Today, we talk about the wired and wireless IoT Communication Technologies, the simple 13 common communication technologies in IoT.

We have compiled and summarized the commonly used wired and wireless communication methods of IoT for future reference.

Communication frequency band: license-free frequency band. Use Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) frequency band, 915MHz (U.S.), 868MHz (Europe), 2. 4GHz (Global)

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Today, we talk about the wired and wireless IoT Communication Technologies, the simple 13 common communication technologies in IoT.

We have compiled and summarized the commonly used wired and wireless communication methods of IoT for future reference.

Communication frequency band: license-free frequency band. Use Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) frequency band, 915MHz (U.S.), 868MHz (Europe), 2. 4GHz (Global)

NB-IoT is built on a cellular network and only consumes about 180KHz of bandwidth, and can be directly deployed on a GSM network, UMTS network, or LTE network.

Communication frequency band: ISM frequency band including 433MHz, 868MHz, 915MHz, etc.

Communication distance: 2-5 km for towns, 15 km for suburbs

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5G NR Communication Technology And Characteristics

Today, we talk about the 5G NR communication technology and its characteristics.

The current communication technology is mainly divided into two types: wired communication and wireless communication. Wired communication uses wired media for conduction, such as copper wire, optical fiber, and so on.

Data transmission in wired media can reach a very high rate, and the current maximum experimental rate of a single fiber can reach 26Tbps. But the bottleneck of mobile communication lies in the wireless communication part. The current mainstream mobile communication standard is LTE, with a theoretical speed of 150Mbps, which is much lower than the wired transmission rate.

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What is the ISM band and what are the main frequencies in the ISM band? After the read, you will get the answer.

This frequency range for 430.050 ~ 434.790MHz, in the world range.

This frequency range is from 868 to 870 MHz, in the UHF band. 

ISM Band Frequency 915 MHz

In the United States and Australia, the frequency range 888 to 889 MHz and 902 to 928 MHz has been available and used by the backscatter RFID system.

ISM Band Frequency 2.4 GHz

This ISM band frequency range is 2.400 ~ 2.483GHz, belongs to the microwave band.

ISM applications in this band include Bluetooth and 802.11 protocol wireless networks.

Microwave / Bluetooth / WIFI, etc. are used in this frequency, in addition to domestic RFID also uses this frequency.

ISM Band Frequency 5.8GHz

This ISM frequency range is 5.725 ~ 5.875GHz.

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The cellular IoT is a method of connecting physical devices (sensors, etc.) to the Internet, and transmits physical devices (sensors, etc.) on the same mobile network as smartphones.

The cellular network connects IoT devices will exceed 20 billion in 2023. Specifically, the number of IoT devices connected via LTE and 5G exceeds 3.5 billion, mainly in China and Northeast Asia.

Two major forms of cellular Internet of Things: LTE-M and NB-IoT

In fact, all current cellular IoT applications use either LTE-M or NB-IoT or GSM cellular infrastructure.

While only the United States, the Netherlands, Ireland, and Australia cover national LTE, GSM has become the norm in many non-Western regions such as Eastern Europe and Africa.

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There are many types of wireless communication technologies in the IoT, such as Wifi, Lora, NB-IoT, Bluetooth, ZigBee, Sigfox, etc.

What is wireless communication technology?

Wireless communication technology transmits information over the air using electromagnetic waves like IR (Infrared), RF (Radio Frequency), satellite, etc. For example, GPS, Wi-Fi, satellite television, wireless computer parts, wireless phones that include 3G and 4G networks, and Bluetooth.

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Regarding the performance of active vs passive GPS antenna, both GPS passive antennas and active GPS antennas can receive GPS signals and achieve the satellite positioning function. But usually, the GPS active antenna is better than the passive GPS antenna, and the positioning speed active vs passive GPS antenna is faster.

From the antenna placement, GPS antenna can be divided into built-in antenna and external antenna; and GPS built-in antenna can be divided into the active and passive antenna.

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As intelligent transport systems for smart cities begin to evolve, people can take advantages of intelligent transport systems for the many safety, efficiency, and cost benefits.

These new prospects are largely due to the expansion of IoT devices and 5G connectivity technologies.

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12 Kinds Of Wireless Technologies

Here are the 12 kinds of wireless technologies. Who will become the main theme of the Internet of Things?

The device is connected to the gateway wirelessly is a typical IoT connection scenario. A gateway is an interface that connects to the Internet through a public broadband cable or DSL modem and then connects to the Internet through an Internet service provider.

In another application scenario called machine-to-machine (M2M), the device connection will go through a cellular operator, and then to another operator, or directly to the Internet.

Although 2G technologies such as GSM/GPRS/EDGE are very popular, some operators have plans to phase out 2G services.

However, most networks still support 3G technologies such as WCDMA and CDMA2000, with data rates up to several megabits per second. Range refers to the distance to the cell site, which can be as long as several kilometers. The cellular connection is obviously an option, but it is more expensive than the other solutions described later.

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From 12 perspectives on Narrowband IoT vs Lora technology to learn which IoT standard is more advantageous.

Rapid developments in machine learning and M2M communication standards are playing a key role.

Semtech's LoRa technology is a bit ahead of the curve in this area, but NB-IoT (narrowband IoT) is also rapidly gaining traction as a powerful LPWAN standard.

Lora and LoRaWAN are often used as synonyms, but they do not refer to the same thing.

NB-IoT works well in urban areas but has only mediocre performance in suburban and rural areas (where 4G signal is not available).

LoRaWAN does not rely on cellular data or Wi-Fi, so it can maintain relatively stable coverage in any region.

Note: Compared to the cost of constructing base stations for 4G-LTE, which is necessary for the introduction of NB-IoT, the cost of constructing base stations for LoRa is a fraction of that for 4G-LTE, and the low investment required gives LoRa a significant advantage.

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NB-IoT and LoRa account for 83% share of LPWAN market, low-power satellite IoT becomes a game-breaker, In-depth analysis of low-power wide-area (LPWAN) market in 2021.

According to the monitoring of IoT Analytics, in the second quarter and the third quarter of many countries because of the epidemic quarantine, the number NB-IoT and LoRa of LPWAN-enabled device activation in 2020 still reached 450 million units, with a year-on-year growth rate of 62%, especially in the epidemic prevention and control and supply chain visualization play an important role in the rapid growth of IoT applications;

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433 MHz Vs 2.4 GHz

Today, we talk about the comparison of 433 MHz and 2.4 GHz wireless communication, the 433 MHz vs 2.4 GHz wireless communication technology.

433 MHz vs 2.4 GHz wireless technologies, each of them have their own characteristics, which one should I choose?

Both 433 MHz and 2.4 GHz wireless technologies belong to short-range wireless communication technologies, and both use ISM license-free frequency bands, but they have their own characteristics.

Since the general 433MHz and 915MHz products use low-frequency narrowband communication technology, their working frequency range is very narrow 5-25 kHz, and the working frequency points of the two wireless transceivers must work within this very narrow frequency range.

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The common wired and wireless communication technologies in IoT include RS-232, RS-485, USB, Z-Wave, IPv6, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, Lora, NB-IoT, NFC, RF, GSM, 3G 4G, etc.

With the progress and development of the times, society gradually enters the Internet +, various sensors collect data more and more abundantly, big data applications follow, and people consider incorporating various devices directly into the Internet to facilitate data collection, management as well as analysis and calculation.

IoT intelligence is no longer limited to small devices and small network stages but has entered the complete field of intelligent industrialization. Intelligent IoTisation steps into maturity on big data, cloud computing, and virtual reality, and is incorporated into the whole big ecological environment of the Internet+.

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4G LTE PCB Antenna Design

The 4G Antenna DesignDipole Antenna Design service is provided by C&T RF Antennas Inc, we provide the Omni dipole antenna design, directional dipole antenna design, etc.

 

C&T RF Antennas Inc provides the 4G LTE PCB Antenna Design Dipole Antenna Design, 3G antenna design, GSM antenna design, 4G antenna design, LTE antenna design, Wifi antenna design, embedded antenna design, etc.

To contact the C&T RF sales team for more Dipole Antenna Design details.

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Today, we talk about the several major benefits of NFC smart homes. Guess what are the benefits of NFC smart homes?

For applications in the era of interconnected smart homes, NFC technology can increase the ease of use, safety, etc. of equipment, and can greatly change the lifestyle of our daily homes.

As a short-field communication technology, NFC has a very wide range of applications, such as mobile payment, channel inspection, automobiles, smart homes, industrial control, and so on. With the continuous evolution of smart home scenarios, a large part of NFC devices will appear in the living room in the future.

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4G PCB Antenna Design Manufacturer

C&T RF Antennas Inc supplies the embedded antenna 4G PCB antenna design with the internal PCB 4G antenna design, embedded FPC 4G antenna design, etc.

C&T RF Antennas Inc is the 4G PCB Antenna Design Manufacturer in China, we provide the 4G Antenna Design and 4G Antenna production. Contact us for more 4G Antenna Design information.

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Due to its wireless transmission characteristics, the adoption of RFID technology in logistics supply chain scenarios can bring a number of benefits. Here have 5 benefits of RFID in logistics supply chain.

Not only can it significantly improve efficiency, but it also opens a new window of digital information management. In general, the application of RFID technology in the logistics supply chain can bring the following benefits.

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4G PCB Antenna Designer And Manufacturer

C&T RF Antennas Inc provides 4G PCB Antenna Design and manufacturing, we have the 4G PCB antenna design and flexible 4G PCB antenna design types, external 4G antenna types, or the PCB antenna with other frequency bands for your choice.

C&T RF Antennas Inc provides the common free frequency band Antenna Design and manufacturing, including a variety of 4G PCB Antenna Design.

And 2.4GHz antennas433MHz868MHz915MHz antennas, loop antennas, RFID antennas, Bluetooth antennas, NFC antennas, UWB antennas can be adapted to different PCB boards.

C&T RF Antennas Inc provides the 4G LTE PCB Antenna Design, 4G PCB Antenna Design, 3G antenna design, GSM antenna design, Wifi antenna design, GPS PCB antenna design, etc.

To contact the C&T RF sales team for more 4G PCB antenna design details.

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What is an RFID warehouse management system?

RFID warehouse management system is a combination of RFID technology and warehouse management system to provide enterprises with a new storage model, to meet the needs of enterprise automation, transparency, intelligent storage, RFID technology, and warehouse management system to achieve a seamless docking, maximize the value of RFID technology applications in warehousing.

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What is narrowband internet of things technology? Why is the narrowband internet of things technology emerging?

What is narrowband internet of things technology?

NB-IoT refers to NarrowBand Internet of Things (Narrowband-IoT) technology. Different IoT services have different requirements for data transmission capability and real-time performance.

Depending on the transmission rate, IoT services can be differentiated into high, medium, and low speed:

High-speed IoT services:

Mainly using 3G and 4G technologies, such as in-vehicle IoT devices and surveillance cameras, the corresponding business features require real-time data transmission;

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5G NarrowBand IoT Relationship

The relationship between 5G NarrowBand IoT

What relationship exists between 5G NarrowBand IoT? Whether Narrowband IoT is 5G technology in the end? Today, we will learn about the 5G Narrowband IoT relationship.

5G NR technology brings by no means only faster network speed, but will be the intelligent interconnection of everything is possible in fact, and NB-IoT is the prelude and foundation of 5G commercialization, therefore, the evolution of NB-IoT is more important, such as support for multicast, continuous mobility, new power levels, etc. As long as the infrastructure such as NB-IoT is complete, 5G New Radio can be truly realized.

Industrial IoT is relatively a regional network, so there is a possibility of a breakthrough. NarrowBand IoT bypasses 4G, no need to wait for the arrival of the 5G era all the time, 5G narrowband IoT takes the lead to come out and lead the way.

NB-IoT and LTE make it possible to control street lights, free parking, environmental monitoring, etc.

There are three standards for the New 5G, namely LTE (authorized channel), LTE-U (unlicensed channel), and Narrowband IoT (authorized channel).

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The relationship between 5G NarrowBand IoT

What relationship exists between 5G NarrowBand IoT? Whether Narrowband IoT is 5G technology in the end? Today, we will learn about the 5G Narrowband IoT relationship.

5G NR technology brings by no means only faster network speed, but will be the intelligent interconnection of everything is possible in fact, and NB-IoT is the prelude and foundation of 5G commercialization, therefore, the evolution of NB-IoT is more important, such as support for multicast, continuous mobility, new power levels, etc. As long as the infrastructure such as NB-IoT is complete, 5G New Radio can be truly realized.

Industrial IoT is relatively a regional network, so there is a possibility of a breakthrough. NarrowBand IoT bypasses 4G, no need to wait for the arrival of the 5G era all the time, 5G narrowband IoT takes the lead to come out and lead the way.

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What is Each RF 400MHz~6GHz Antenna Application?

What are the antenna application scenarios for each frequency band of the RF 400MHz~6GHz antenna band?

Antenna applications at different frequencies

The most widespread frequency bands are between 400 MHz and 6GHz, and they have different names according to the application scenarios in the band division. Low frequency ranges from 400MHz to 433 MHz and 868 MHz to 960 MHz, which belong to long-distance data stable transmission antenna application scenarios.

868MHz 915MHz 930MHz also belongs to the antenna named Lora.

NB-IoT antenna applications

NB-IoT refers to Narrow Band Internet of Things (NarrowBand-IoT) technology, which focuses on the Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) Internet of Things (IoT) market and is an emerging technology that can be widely used worldwide.

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Today, we talk about the LTE Cat 1 vs Cat 4. After the read, you will know about the difference between LTE Cat.1 and Cat.4.

To distinguish between LTE Cat.1 and Cat.4, we need to know what Cat is. Cat stands for Category, and the numbers after Cat represent the different categories, which 3GPP names in the Cat.

Cat.X is used to describe the capability level of user terminals according to the 3GPP Release definition, and Cat4 and Cat1 are both standards for user terminal categories in LTE networks for 4G communications.

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Lora Antenna Design

Who Provides Lora Antenna Design Service?

The Lora Antenna Design service is provided by C&T RF Antennas Inc, the indoor Lora Antenna Design service, and the outdoor Lora Antenna Design service supplier. Such as Lora PCB antenna design, Flexible PCB Lora antenna design, Lora Omni antenna design, Lora external antenna design, etc.

Contact us for more Lora antenna design details such as antenna specs, antenna datasheet, antenna design time and fee.

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Today, we talk about something about NB-IoT which you may not know.

NB-IoT refers to Narrow Band - Internet of Things (IoT) technology, which focuses on the Low Power Wide Area (LPWA) Internet of Things (IoT) market and is an emerging technology that can be widely used around the world.

Huawei, as the domestic leader in developing NB-IoT technology, has also attracted considerable attention from the technology community.

Q: How are the frequency bands for NB-IoT divided by domestic and international operators?

A: Most operators worldwide use the 900MHz band to deploy NB-IoT, and some operators deploy in the 800MHz band.

China Unicom's NB-IoT is deployed in the 900MHz and 1800MHz bands, and currently, only 900MHz is available for trials.

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