Talking about education is talking about how to shape human character as desired. while the character will be formed by various factors, including the environment. People have different characters, because they grow in different environments. Thus the role of the environment is very large in shaping one's behavior.
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Based on this fact, the educational environment must be organized and maintained so that it looks clean and tidy. The environment must be seen as part of education. The environment must be an important factor in shaping the personality of children or students studying at school or campus. School or campus should not be left dirty and neglected.
The educational environment, in addition to having to be clean, neat, should also maintain its beauty. Islam teaches about cleanliness, neatness and beauty. Therefore schools or campuses should not display slums.
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Educational institutions, both informal, non-formal and formal, are places for transfer of knowledge and culture. Through educational practice, students are invited to understand how history or cultural experience can be transformed in life
which they will experience and prepare them to face the challenges and demands within them. Thus, the meaning of knowledge and culture is often forced to be combined because of the influence of the times on knowledge if transformed.
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Educational Institution is a business entity that is engaged and responsible for the implementation of education of students.
Educational Institution is a place or place where the educational process takes place simultaneously with the civilizing process.
Educational Institutions are the place where the education process takes place which includes education of families, schools and communities.
Educational institutions are places where education takes place, especially in the three main educational environments, namely family, school and community.
Understanding of Educational Institutions in General
Educational institution is an institution or place where the process of education or teaching and learning is carried out with the aim to change the behavior of individuals toward a better direction through interaction with the surrounding environment.
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Various Types of Educational Institutions
educational institutions can be divided into 3 types, namely:
- Formal education institutions.
- Informal education institutions.
- Non-formal education institutions.
Formal Educational Institutions
Formal educational institutions are educational institutions that are carried out in schools ranging from elementary school to tertiary level.
Characteristics of formal education institutions:
- Organized in separate classes according to level
- There are age requirements
- There is a certain learning period
- There is a study time schedule
- The learning process is organized in an orderly and structured manner
- Learning materials are arranged based on the curriculum and elaborated in certain syllabi
- The learning material is mostly intellectual and continuous academic
- The teacher teaches using certain methods, media and teaching sequences
- There is a report card system, study evaluation or diploma.
- Schools have an education budget designed within a certain time frame.
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Informal Education Institute
Informal Education is education carried out in the community and family.
Characteristics of Informal Education Institutions:
- Not related to place and time
- Not tied to age levels
- Can take place without special teachers or students
- Do not use certain methods
- Without using a learning plan (curriculum).
Non-Formal Education Institutions
Non-Formal Education Institutions, namely educational institutions carried out by the community in the sense of education held by institutions outside of school or outside of tertiary institutions.
Characteristics of Non-Formal Education Institutions:
- Programs made according to the needs of the community
- The material provided is practical or something that is needed by the community at that time and can soon be fulfilled through a short education.
- The time required is relatively short
- The cost is relatively cheap
- The ages of students differ
- The class level does not show clear grades
- Implementation of activities compiled through good planning
- The purpose of directed education is to get work or improve living standards
- Time and place of learning tailored to those who need it
- Appears because of rapid changes in society.
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Function of Educational Institutions
The function of education according to Horton and Hunt is as follows:
1. Manifest Education Function
- To prepare a community member to make a living.
- To develop an individual talent for personal satisfaction and for the benefit of the community.
- To preserve a culture.
- To instill a skill necessary for participation in democracy.
2. Latent Educational Function
- Reducing Parental Education , namely through school education, parents will delegate their duties and authority in educating children to school.
- Providing Tools for Disobedience , namely schools have the potential to instill a value of development in the community. This is because it is reflected by differences in views between schools and the community about a matter.
- Maintaining the Social Class System , namely school education is expected to be able to socialize to their students to accept a difference in prestige, privilege, and status that exists in society. The school is also expected to be a channel for students 'mobility to higher social status or at least according to their parents' status.
- Extending Adolescence , namely school education can slow down one's adulthood because students are still economically dependent on their parents.
Educational Function According to David Popenoe
- Transmission (transfer) of culture
- Choosing and teaching social role
- The school teaches personality patterns
- Source of social innovation
Every human being will definitely need education, education for worldly and education for the afterlife.
The Role of Educational Institutions
Family Education Institute
The family environment is the first and foremost educational environment, because from the family the child first gets education and guidance and most of the child's life is in the family. The main task of the family for children's education is as a foundation for moral education and outlook on life.
The nature and character of the child is largely taken from both parents and other family members. Thus family education has a very important role in children's education, including:
- First Childhood Experience
Family education institutions provide the first experience which is an important factor in the personal development of children, because from here the balance of the soul in the further development of the individual is determined.
- Guaranteeing the Emotional Life of Children
Emotional life is one of the most important factors in shaping one's personality, because of abnormalities in the development of individual education by the lack of proper emotional life.
- Instill Moral Education Basis
In a family the behavior of parents becomes an example by a child and children like to imitate the actions of their parents. "A sense of love, a sense of unity and other feelings and the general state of the soul
very useful for ongoing education, especially education of character, there is in family life in a strong and pure nature, so that no other education centers can match it "
- Provides a basis for social education
Namely by growing the seeds of social awareness through help-help in family life, mutual cooperation, maintaining order, peace and others.
- Laying of Religious Basics
Introducing religious sciences, teaching the Koran and others. This greatly fostered children's religion.
Thus the role of family education institutions is basic education to shape the child's personality.
School Educational Institutions
School education is basically a continuation of family education only that education in schools is obtained in an orderly, systematic, stratified manner, and by following clear and strict requirements. The role of the school are:
- Students learn to get along with fellow students, between teachers and students, and between students and people who are not teachers.
- Students learn to obey school rules.
- Preparing students to become members of society that are useful for religion, nation and state.
It can be said that school education is the formation of intelligence, interest and talent in children to be developed.
Community Education Institutions
The community is the third institution after the family and school. Education in the wider impact community. The style and variety of education experienced by a person in society are numerous, covering all fields, both the formation of habits, the formation of understandings (knowledge) of attitudes and interests, as well as the formation of literature and religion.
So it can be said that community education is the application of family and school education. In community education this is more about education adjustments to the community.
The three educational institutions cooperated between them both directly and indirectly, by mutually supporting the same activities individually or together.
In other words, the act of educating parents to children is also carried out by schools by strengthening it and being controlled by the community as an environment for the child's social environment.
Examples of Formal Education Institutions
- a. Kindergarten (TK)
- b. Raudatul Athfal (RA)
- c. Elementary School
- d. Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (MI)
- e. Middle School (SMP)
- f. Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs)
- g. High School (SMA)
- h. Madrasah Aliyah (MA)
- i. Vocational High School Vocational School)
- j. Vocational Aliyah Madrasah (MAK)
- k. Higher Education, including; Academy, Polytechnic, High School,
- Institute and University.
Examples of Non-Normal Educational Institutions
- a. Playgroup (KB)
- b. Daycare Center (TPA)
- c. Special Institutions
- d. Studio
- e. Training institute
- f. Study groups
- g. Learning centers
- h. Assembly taklim
- i. "AMAL-MAS" Skills and Training Institute
Examples of Informal Education Institutions
- Parents as an educational institution.
- The foundation as an educational institution.
- The state as an educational institution.
- Religious institutions.